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Societal advertising on the attitudes of adolescent consumers marketing essay

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The notion of societal marketing implies satisfaction of the requirements of the marketplace in ways that increase the overall welfare of customers and society all together and at the same contributing towards interacting with the organization goals (Kotler & Keller, 2008).

In 21st century, most organizations have become progressively interested about handling societal issues in marketing to supply benefits to all of the stakeholders in the world, including organization, customer and also society (McAlister & Ferrell, 2002; Waddell, 2002;) and there are increasing tendency towards the concept of societal marketing and green consumerism among advertising departments of various businesses (Prothero, 1990). Societal advertising has grown in popularity and use within various aspects of society and specific interpersonal causes could reap the benefits of societal marketing such as for example public overall health, pollution control, mass transit, private education, drug abuse. (Andreasen, 1995; Grier & Byrant, 2005; Kotlet & Zaltman, 1971; Ling, Franklin, Lindsteadt, & Gearon, 1992; Siegel & Doner, 1998). Various sector surveys conducted through the years have shown positive affect of societal marketing on customer perception and corporate picture (Cone Inc., 2002; Cone Inc., 2008A; Cone Inc., 2008B; Jayne, 2001). Additionally, it has been stated that organizations adopting the societal marketing concept will tend to be more profitable over time apart from being beneficial to society as a whole (Abratt & Sacks, 1988).

Societal marketing offers huge opportunities for organizations as well as the society. Several analyses indicate that there exist ample market segments that are prepared to switch brands for the proper cause at the right value. Besides this, there likewise exist segments that are prepared to switch brands without caring about price and quality. Subsequently, it can be explained that corporate image linked to promotion of public great and specific triggers can wield strong influence on customer habit (Barone, Miyazaki, & Taylor, 2000; Bloom, Hoeffler, Keller, & Meza, 2006; Hoek & Gendall, 2008).

Cause-related marketing is highly implicated in the concept of societal marketing where organizations extend specific volume of contribution to some cause when clients undertake revenue generating exchanges that fulfill organizational as well as individual objectives (Andreasen, 1996). Therefore, it is reckoned as a variant of societal marketing theory (Kotler, 2000) and implies connecting company’s product or service to another social trigger for the mutual benefit of the organization and contemporary society (Pringle & Thompson, 1999). There were various reported business cases indicating that societal advertising lead to remarkable increase in the revenues and situation of organizations (Adkins, 1999; Balabanis, Hugh, & Lyall, 1998; Kotler, 2000). Cause-related marketing implies psychological and rational involvement of consumers (Bloom et al., 2006) which renders societal advertising advantageous for the business (Andreasen, 1996; Kotler, 2000).

Another concept closely linked to the idea of societal marketing is normally that of corporate interpersonal responsibility which include corporate social actions whose goal is to satisfy social needs (Brønn & Vrioni, 2001; Moir, 2001). Realizing corporate social responsibility and undertaking reason related marketing is an instrument for increasing buyer loyalty and building status (Brønn & Vrioni, 2001). The modification in corporate image related to cause-related marketing campaigns appears to depend a good deal about how customers perceive the reason why for company’s involvement in reason related programs and the quantity of help given to the reason through a company’s involvement (Webb & Mohr, 1998).

The concept of societal advertising and corporate social responsibility is relatively brand-new. In Pakistan many companies have started using this process fairly recently. Keeping because the emerging importance of CRM, an exploratory research has been carried out to find its impact on the purchase of convenience goods in Peshawar. The specific categories of product selected had been soaps, detergents, smokes, candies, chewing gums, toothpaste, shampoos, ghee, oil, milk and tea (Ghani & Imran, 2008; Nazir, Iftikhar, & Rana, 2010)

Despite the enormous expansion of societal marketing procedures and related concepts across the world, empirical research is still scarce in this subject matter (Berger, Cunningham, & Koziets, 1999), particularly in Pakistan. There are numerous questions particularly regarding the influence of societal advertising on buyer perceptions of corporate impression and their purchase intention and tendencies in the context of Pakistan which needs to be investigated through empirical exploration.


The rationale and justification behind this exploration is that although there is significant body of understanding on societal advertising and corporate impression, there is quite little research on the idea of societal advertising in Pakistan. Actually, this can be the first research study on the affect of societal advertising on consumer perception of corporate impression in the context of Pakistan. Besides, there has been a gap in the literature concerning influence of societal marketing regarding demography – this study will also attempt to disclose the effect of societal marketing work on young consumers.

Apart from contributions to the idea, this research study will attempt to make practical talk about to the knowledge of societal advertising for the practitioners of the concept. This research provides empirical information to marketers in order that they take educated decision while applying societal marketing to distinguish themselves from competitors. Businesses may apply the results to perform successful societal marketing campaigns.


To inquire into the research problem, the precise objectives this study is made to address are:

To understand the degree and aspect of societal marketing programs in Pakistan.

To reckon the effectiveness of societal marketing campaign of two organizations working in Pakistan

To develop a framework for reckoning effects of societal marketing on attitudes of little consumers regarding corporate image

To have better knowledge of demographic factors (gender, years, education level) that affect customer attitudes toward corporate image


The emerging issues nowadays such as environmental deterioration, learning resource shortages, explosive population growth, world hunger, poverty, and several social causes have brought on businesses to reconsider the existing marketing philosophies (Kotler, 2000). That is why the pressure has increased on many companies and managers to know and understand their duties to society and act in a manner that benefits the entire community (Lambin, 1997). Advertising communication and campaigns with social sizes in everybody’s viewpoint (Bennett, 1998; Drumwright, 1996; Marsden, 2000; Simon, 1995) as now marketers are likely to react to higher consumer anticipations of corporate public responsibility (Benezra, 1996; Caudron, 1994; Scott, 1995; Smith, 1994).

The effects of societal marketing, along with other related terms, have already been talked about extensively in the trade literature (Cramer, 1991; Larson, 1994; Cone, 1999; Darby, 1999; Ebenkamp & Stark, 1999; Fellman, 1999; Goetzl, Snyder, & Ross, 1999; Redemacher, 1999; Stubbs & Andrews, 1999; Whitaker, 1999; Hoover, 2000). A lot of surveys have been executed in various countries, including the New Zealand, the uk, Australia and, USA are also done to get the ramifications of societal marketing on consumer behavior (Business in the community, 1997, 1998; Cone Inc., 2000; Cone/Roper communications, 1994, 1999; Jayne, 2001). Those surveys all of them showed similar benefits, that the customers attitude or patterns are more confident towards a firm that supports social triggers, and additionally prefer to buy a cause-related item. These customers will probably switch brand or retailer associated with an excellent cause only, if price tag and quality are equal. Moreover, in addition they believe that this idea should be a major business practice. On the other hand, there is little confusion in determining, what’s considered a social cause, remain between consumer inclination and corporate effort (Simon, 1995).

Somewhat similar results have been gathered from teen surveys aswell, US teens consider a company’s commitment to causes is the second the very first thing after product quality when teens end up buying, followed by price, advertising and celebrity endorsements (Cone, Inc., 2000). Furthermore, 86 percent of teens spread an excellent person to person about companies that are focused on causes (up from 80 percent in 1999). In addition, teen girls are found to become more supportive of reason initiatives than their male.

Davis (1994) done buyer response to corporate environmental advertising and marketing and found out that responses were more favorable when they were from confident advertiser and possessed ethical context. Creyer and Ross (1997) had been of the view that client promote the organization social behavior if they’re ethically concerned about it. A study revealed that consumers prefer cause-related products and are willing to switch brands for this purpose (Cavill et al. 1997). Webb and Mohr (1998) investigated types of customer response to cause related marketing and found out that cause-related marketing influences consumer’s investing in behaviour. Berger, Cunningham, and Koziets (1999) mentioned that cause lay claim in advertisements has a strong influence on manufacturer attitudes and purchase intention. Morton (1999) looked into corporate social advertising’s effect on audience attitude toward enterprise and reason and found different analysis of corporations with corporate sociable responsibility. Another study discovered that both social conscience and organization competence have a major impact on corporate photograph and that public conscience influences consumer purchase intention. (Goldberg, 1999). Webb (1999) inquired into customer attributions regarding trigger related marketing supplies and their effect on evaluations of the company and buy intention and concluded that personal relevance of reason impacts that a lot of in reckoning client response to cause-related efforts. Barone, Miyazaki and Taylor (2000) found out in a report that campaigns supporting cultural causes which are perceived by consumers to be for correct factors are rewarded. Madrigal (2000) studied the purpose of corporate association in different product evaluation and concluded that environmental friendliness impressive influenced merchandise response and the perception of enterprise. A report concluded that individuals are not skeptical to corporations utilizing cause related advertising (Bronn & Vrioni, 2001). Sen and Bhattacharya (2001) mentioned that a history of corporate sociable responsibility has positive impact on company evaluation and corporate photo. Hoeffler and Keller (2002) investigated the result of corporate societal advertising on brand equity and found a great relationship. Trimble and Rifon (2006) investigated consumer perceptions of compatibility in cause-related marketing communications and confirmed the function of organization/reason compatibility for the creation of positive consumer perceptions of the donor, and highlight the importance of individual characteristics that affect perceptions of the reason and its compatibility with a donor. Gupta and Pirsch (2006) established that company-cause match improves frame of mind toward the company-cause alliance and increases purchase intent. Nan and Heo (2007) demonstrated that advertisement with an embedded cause-related marketing communication evokes more favorable buyer attitude toward the company as compared with an identical advertisement but with out a cause-related marketing communication. Heslin and

Ochoa (2008) talked about the healthy effects of corporate cultural responsibility on corporate picture and suggested principles for creating a relevant approach. Vergalli and Poddi (2009) studied the influence of corporate cultural responsibility on firm overall performance and concluded that such companies obtain higher sales and profits because of several causes reputation effect, a reduction of long haul costs and increased cultural responsible demand.

As a result of these findings, previous exploration in this field can be categorized into three significant areas relating to corporate image, product graphic and buy intention or brand choice. These areas are talked about next.

Corporate image. It is evident that the impression of societal advertising on consumers’ behaviour toward the business tends to be positive if it’s linked to a cause that customers support (Davis, 1994; Madrigal, 2000; Morton, 1999; Ross & Patterson, 1992; Sen & Bhattacharya, 2001; Webb, 1999; Webb & Mohr, 1998). Most consumers prefer corporate and brand advertising with a cultural promise (Berger, Cunningham, & Koziets, 1999; Brown & Dacin, 1997; Davis, 1994; Mortan, 1999; Sen & Bhattacharya, 2001), but capability of carrying out in harmony of firm-nonprofit group (NPO) alliances likewise influences their attitudes (Webb, 1999).

Product image. If companies show commitment to public responsibility in their ads the effects on product picture are highly favorable (Berger, Cunningham, & Koziets, 1999; Brown & Dacin, 1997; Davis 1994; Goldberg 1999), specifically amongst US teens (Cone/Roper communications 1999; Cone Inc., 2000). Moreover, perceptions of corporate social responsibility influence consumer’s evaluation of new products (Dark brown & Dacin, 1997; Creyer & Ross, 1997; Madrigal, 2000).

Purchase intention or company choice. Consumer attitudes to buy intention and tendency to switch brands to the ones that support social causes tend to boost with the perception of ethical and public responsibility demonstrated by the company (Barone, Miyazaki, & Taylor, 2000; Bennett & Gabriel, 2000; Berger, Cunningham, & Koziets, 1999; Bronn & Vrionic, 2001; Creyer & Ross, 1997; Davis, 1994; Goldberg, 1999; Sen & Bhattacharya, 2001; Webb & Mohr, 1998). Females generally have a higher intention to get or switch brands than males (Ross & Patterson, 1992; Webb & Mohr, 1998; Webb, 1999). The outcomes of the analysis by Webb and Mohr (1998) determined four types of customer response to societal marketing influencing consumer’s buying behaviour specifically, skeptics, balancer, attribution-oriented and socially worried groups. Additionally, campaigns which support social causes were displayed by Barone, Miyazaki, and Taylor (2000) to come to be rewarded by buyers when these causes had been perceived by the customers to be for ideal reasons.

In summary, it really is evident that there surely is a positive romantic relationship between societal advertising and consumer response to the company and product. Nevertheless, no research is enough and additional research is needed to assure that there is the strong marriage between societal advertising and consumer attitudes particularly in the context of Pakistan.


Since this specific research issue hasn’t been addressed in Pakistan before, to answer it, pursuing hypotheses are developed.

H1 Consumers could have a positive attitude towards an organization that undertakes a societal advertising campaign.

H2 Corporate marketing communications will affect frame of mind of consumers towards corporate image

H3 Younger consumers could have a more good attitude towards a business undertaking a societal marketing campaign than will older consumers.

H4 Female consumers will have a more good attitude towards a business undertaking a societal advertising campaign than will men.

H5 Consumers with an increased educational level will have more positive attitudes towards an organization that undertakes a societal advertising campaign than will those of lower educational level.

Research design

A research design, according to Zikmund (1997), "a master plan by which we specify the approaches and functions for collection and examination of the required information" (p. 199).

Choice of research

The choice of study will be Descriptive analysis which describes info and characteristics about the population or function being studied. It we can have greater understanding (Zikmund, 1997). Descriptive research is commonly very structured and rigid for the assortment of info (Stevens et al., 2000). The objective of using this study is that it can help understanding the attitudes and habit of customers, who are likely to respond towards the companies undertaking a societal marketing campaign and hence, the degree to which societal marketing and corporate picture are connected will be motivated (Kinnear & Taylor, 1996). Consequently, this design is the most suitable to examine the effect of societal marketing on customer behavior towards corporate image.


The sample design that’ll be employed in this study comes from the approach produced by Stevens et al. (2000) which implies reckoning the population pertinent to the analysis, the sampling framework, the sampling procedures, the estimation of sample size and lastly selection of sample


The population relevant to a study is referred to as ‘a complete band of entities that share some typically common set of features’ (Zikmund, 1997, p. 414). In this study, the population is all the university students, since we intend to find the influence on young buyers and university offers a good spot to find this kind of population.

Sampling body. The sampling framework in this review will end up being 2% graduate and post-graduate college students of university. The Cerebos database profile of customers, displayed in table 4.1, was gathered through the business’s marketing activities such as a lucky draw. Each client in this database is an individual member of the populace and is defined as an component (Sekaran 2000) or a sample unit (Zikmund 1997).

Sampling method. As a self-administered questionnaire approach will be applied in this research, it is possible to make use of probability sampling for selecting respondents so as to generalize the findings (Zikmund, 1997). Consequently, a proportionate stratified sampling will get picked. The proportionate stratified sampling includes an activity of stratification, followed by random selection of topics from each stratum (Sekaran, 2000). In this analysis, each member group of the population includes a known probability of being selected. This method is useful when differentiated information is necessary regarding numerous strata within a human population because it provides more information within confirmed sample size (Sekaran, 2000). Furthermore, it permits a reduction of standard error over basic random sampling (Zikmund, 1997). Thus, the self-assurance interval will be small. First, the population will be split into mutually special and collectively exhaustive subgroups or strata. The stratum in this study will be age group, gender and education level since we intend to find affect of societal advertising on young customers and hypotheses consist of demographic variables how to write a conclusion for a research paper of age, gender and education level. Therefore, using this sort of sampling method in this research is justified.

Sample size. A suggested sample size of 200 to 500 should be adequate for the info. Because of budget and times constraints and practicalities of the sample body, 500 questionnaires will come to be self-administered to respondents sampled through the earlier mentioned sampling method.


Data collection

Self-administered questionnaires will be utilized for data collection. Many data collection methods have been identified other than self-administered questionnaire, including personal interviews, telephone interviews, mail surveys and internet surveys, along with the combinations of the in this article (Zikmund, 1997). It is evident that all method has their positive aspects and shortcomings. Self-administered questionnaires will come to be selected because theses are cost-effective, particularly in this research which requires significantly large numbers of respondents. Besides, they may be administered in good sized quantities all at one place and time. Moreover, acceleration of administration and analysis is relatively faster and because of time constraints connected with this study. Self-administered questionnaires are well suited for computer based research strategies.

Questionnaires are an efficient data collection mechanism when the researcher understands exactly what’s required and how to measure the variables (Sekaran, 2000). A self-administered questionnaire survey was therefore chosen for this study.

Data Analysis

Data gathered through surveys will come to be subject to analysis using software programs and statistical tactics. Before data examination is completed, Data preparation will be done so that the familiarity with the collected data is manufactured.

Data Processing

Tabachnick & Fidell (1983) advised analyzing the data and describing descriptive statistics before undertaking data evaluation, so that the researcher is familiar with the info and knows the romantic relationships between variables. This research study will observe data preparation strategy which will include editing, data access, verification and handling of lacking data. Firstly, the info will be reckoned for outliers followed by checking of normality of the info. In this stage, info will be cleaned to be sure that the observations will be accurate accompanied by screening, identification and operations of the problems regarding missing data, outliers and normality.

SPSS version 13 and Microsoft Excel 2007 software packages will be utilized for getting into, verifying and evaluation of info. Microsoft Excel will be used for basic calculations such as mean, median, setting, variance and regular deviation while SPSS will be used for advanced rendering of info as in hypothesis testing. SPSS and Microsoft Excel are used because they are convenient and easily available statistical packages that are relatively simple to use and handle.

Data Analysis

Univariate analysis will be utilized to describe the essential characteristics of the info collected from the study. Therefore, summary figures of the mean and typical deviation for every single of the variables in the framework will become calculated. Regarding descriptive figures, following will end up being calculated for every variable:

Distribution; which will summarize the regularity of individual values or ranges of values for a variable. Regularity distribution will be used. e.g., Percentage of respondents who are female.

Central Tendency; which will be used to reckon central inclination of variables. Mean, Median and Function will be rendered.

Dispersion; that may determine the pass on of the values around the central inclination. Variance and Regular Deviation will get calculated to estimate dispersion.

Justification for the use of univariate evaluation is that it is important for arranging and showing data and form the basis of rigorous data analysis. Besides, it can help examine the tendencies, distributed, normality, and dependability of a data place. It forms the basis for more advanced statistical methods.

Bivariate Analysis will be utilized to know the partnership between variables and test the hypothesis also to make an effort to infer from the sample info about the population as a whole. Variables measured will be analyzed through statistical lab tests of significance. Hypothesis will be approved by constructing a bivariate rate of recurrence distribution or contingency tables. SPSS will be utilized to attract contingency tables. However, we will use hand analysis to show the logic of bivariate evaluation.

Bivariate Analysis will be utilized since it yields insight into interactions between variables and reveal causes and effects and help to make predictions. Besides, bivariate analysis is fundamental in solving the research issue at hand and subsequent hypotheses.

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